Valor frefghter seats. Saving time – helping you save lives.
All seats come with VALORTech XDTM military grade upholstery plus anti-microbial treatment and
are equiped with a Dual Retractor ABTS belt system with integrated ready-reach easy belt access.
Valor Crew Seats – easy access to seat belts and SCBA release.
• Industry-frst, magnetic SCBA shoulder strap support
• Optional built-in accident protection with Roll Tek®
Valor Ofcer Seats – available with unique SCBA securement.
• Easy-to-reach front controls
• Optional low-profle air suspension
Valor Driver Seats – maximum seat comfort and safety features.
• Easy-to-reach front toggle controls
• Comfort choices – air suspensions and 12-way electric seats
Steve Toren 612.963.5158 | firstname.lastname@example.org
When Every Second Counts
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in the foam operation can also cause failures
when not used correctly. Using inline foam
eductors is the most common method of
proportioning foam concentrate into a water
stream. These devices are very simple, have
no moving parts, work off the venturi principle, and can cause a lot of problems and
heartache for firefighters.
The venturi principle creates a vacuum
because of the pressure differences of the
water entering the eductor at a high pressure and rapidly moving into an area of
low pressure. Most modern eductors have a
metering valve to adjust the percentage at
which the foam concentrate is proportioned.
Some eductors are designed for only one percentage. Eductors come in different sizes
and flow rates. The most common eductors are designed for a flow of 100 gallons per
minute (gpm) and used with 1½- or 1¾-inch
handlines. Eductors designed for 250 gpm
are made for 2½-inch handlines, and there
are eductors capable of flowing 500 gpm for
One of the biggest reasons an eductor
fails to make foam is because of too much
pressure on the discharge or low-pressure
side of the eductor, which prevents the venturi from occurring. The low-pressure side
can have no more than 65 percent of the
intake pressure. Most eductors require 200
pounds per square inch (psi) on the intake
side, so any pressure greater than 130 psi on
the discharge side will cause the eductor to
not function. Most nozzles require 100 psi
and then you have approximately 20 to 25
psi in friction loss, leaving only 5 to 10 psi for
other factors such as elevation or a hose that
has a higher amount of friction loss.
There are some simple solutions to overcome these pressure problems. Simply moving the eductor closer to the nozzle will
eliminate many of the problems, but that
option is not always feasible. Increasing
the size of the hose will reduce friction loss
as well. Simply using two reducers (one
at the eductor and one at the nozzle) and
2½-inch hose will increase the available distance because of less friction loss in the bigger hose. Using a different nozzle, such as a
low-pressure 75-psi nozzle, will also increase
the amount of pressure available to be used
for friction or elevation loss.
Back pressure on the foam eductor can
also be created from other factors. Two of
the factors are kinks in the hose and nozzles being partially opened. Some firefighters partially close the nozzle to make
handling the hose a little easier. But, this is
not acceptable in foam operations. Incident
commanders must instead make sure there
are enough firefighters on a hoseline to control it without having to partially close the
nozzle. Trash in hoselines and nozzles can
also create additional back pressure, causing foam operations to fail. This can happen
many times in rural situations when water
is being drafted from static water sources.
Leaves, sticks, rocks, etc. that are pulled into
pumps unknowingly ultimately end up in
nozzles and bring foam operations to a halt.
The easiest way to determine if back
pressure is a problem is to place a gauge on
the discharge side of the eductor to mea-
sure actual back pressure. These gauges can
quickly identify if there is a problem with
back pressure, allowing operators to nar-
row down their investigation into a prob-
lem. Gauges can be permanently installed
on all eductors or mounted inline between
the eductor and first section of hose. Photo 2
shows an inline foam eductor with a gauge
on the low-pressure side of the eductor that
is used to show the amount of back pressure.
This gauge is color-coded to help the operator quickly notice a problem. If the needle is
in the green, all is good. But if the needle is in
the red, foam is probably not being produced
and adjustments are necessary.
In addition to back pressure, there are
some other reasons eductor-based foam
operations can fail. One such reason is that
the pickup hose is too long and the eductor is too far above the foam source. Just like
pumpers cannot draft water at greater than
30 feet below the pump, an eductor cannot
draft foam at more than six feet below the
eductor. Foam system operators must make
sure that the bottoms of foam containers are
no more than six feet from the eductor, so all
foam can be used, and the operation will not
stop half way through. A simple solution to
this problem is to ensure that eductor pickup tubes are no longer than six feet.
Failing to flush all eductors and other
foam equipment after use can lead to future
foam operations failing. Even though a foam
eductor is very simple with no moving parts,
dried foam concentrate can block the small
internal passages and cause the metering
valve to lock up. Flushing eductors, hoses,
and nozzles with clean water after every
use can prevent this. Clean water should be
pulled through the eductor the same way
foam concentrate is while the metering valve
is operated to ensure all internal areas are
flushed. Some newly designed foam eductors
have a button that will allow clean water
being pumped through the eductor to be
pushed out the foam pickup tube, simplify-
ing the flushing process.